Katie at Kitchen Stewardship is doing a series on emergency preparedness and food storage. She has already done a post on storing several of the main groups of healthy foods: proteins, fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats. So, if you're interested in a healthy approach, you should check it out.
While I'm on the topic, on of the reasons that I love food storage is because most of the basic foods that are easy to store (wheat, beans, oats...) are so healthy!
Two methods of storing food that Kitchen Stewardship doesn't talk much about are pressure canning and storing foods air tight (by using a FoodSaver). I haven't written about either of these yet. (Will someone remind me to write about these sometime?)